Custom Directive

You can translate not only with $t, but also with the v-t custom directive.

String syntax

You can pass the keypath of locale messages with string syntax.

Javascript:

import { createApp } from 'vue'
import { createI18n } from 'vue-i18n'

const i18n = createI18n({
  locale: 'en',
  messages: {
    en: { hello: 'hi there!' },
    ja: { hello: 'こんにちは!' }
  }
})

const app = createApp({
  data: () => ({ path: 'hello' })
})
app.use(i18n)
app.mount('#app')

Templates:

<div id="string-syntax">
  <!-- string literal -->
  <p v-t="'hello'"></p>
  <!-- keypath binding via data -->
  <p v-t="path"></p>
</div>

Outputs:

<div id="string-syntax">
  <p>hi there!</p>
  <p>hi there!</p>
</div>

Object syntax

You can use object syntax.

Javascript:

import { createApp } from 'vue'
import { createI18n } from 'vue-i18n'

const i18n = createI18n({
  locale: 'ja',
  messages: {
    en: {
      message: {
        hi: 'Hi, {name}!',
        bye: 'good bye!'
      }
    },
    ja: {
      message: {
        hi: 'こんにちは、 {name}!',
        bye: 'さようなら!'
      }
    }
  }
})

const app = createApp({
  data() {
    return { byePath: 'message.bye' }
  }
})
app.use(i18n)
app.mount('#object-syntax')

Templates:

<div id="app">
  <!-- literal -->
  <p v-t="{ path: 'message.hi', args: { name: 'kazupon' } }"></p>
  <!-- data binding via data -->
  <p v-t="{ path: byePath, locale: 'en' }"></p>
</div>

Outputs:

<div id="object-syntax">
  <p>こんにちは、 kazupon!</p>
  <p>good bye!</p>
</div>

$t vs v-t

$t

$t is function of Vue18n instance. It has the following pros and cons:

Pros

You can flexibly use mustache syntax {} in templates and also computed props and methods in Vue component instance.

Cons

$t is executed every time when re-render occurs, so it does have translation costs.

v-t

v-t is a custom directive. It has the following pros and cons:

Pros

v-t has better performance than the $t function due to its pre-translation is possible with the Vue compiler module which was provided by vue-i18n-extensions.

Therefore it’s possible to make more performance optimizations.

Cons

v-t cannot be flexibly used like $t, it’s rather complex. The translated content with v-t is inserted into the textContent of the element. Also, when you use server-side rendering, you need to set the custom transform to directiveTransforms option of the compile function of @vue/compiler-ssr.