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Custom Message Format

Supported Versions

🆕 9.3+

As described in the message format syntax, Vue I18n message format is original.

If you want to use a message format like ICU Message Format, you can use a custom format by implementing the message compiler yourself.


This topic requires understanding Vue I18n message format compilation and how formats are resolved.


The feature is experimental. It may receive breaking changes or be removed in the future.

Message Compiler implementation

You can make a message compiler by implementing functions with the following interfaces.

The following is a TypeScript type definition:

export declare type MessageCompiler<Message = string, MessageSource = string | ResourceNode> = (message: MessageSource, context: MessageCompilerContext) => MessageFunction<Message>;

The following is an example of a message compiler implementation that uses intl-messageformat to support the ICU Message format.

import IntlMessageFormat from 'intl-messageformat'

import type { MessageCompiler, CompileError, MessageContext } from 'vue-i18n'

export const messageCompiler: MessageCompiler = (
  { locale, key, onError }
) => {
  if (typeof message === 'string') {
     * You can tune your message compiler performance more with your cache strategy or also memoization at here
    const formatter = new IntlMessageFormat(message, locale)
    return (ctx: MessageContext) => {
      return formatter.format(ctx.values)
  } else {
     * for AST.
     * If you would like to support it,
     * You need to transform locale mesages such as `json`, `yaml`, etc. with the bundle plugin.
    onError && onError(new Error('not support for AST') as CompileError)
    return () => key

Message compiler registration

After implementing message compiler, set the messageCompiler option of createI18n as follows, and you can use your message format for the messages option:

import { createI18n } from 'vue-i18n'
import { messageCompiler } from './compilation'

const i18n = createI18n({
  legacy: false,
  locale: 'en',
  messages: {
    en: {
      hello: 'hello world!',
      greeting: 'hi, {name}!',
      photo: `You have {numPhotos, plural,
        =0 {no photos.}
        =1 {one photo.}
        other {# photos.}

// the below your something to do ...
// ...


In implementing the message compiler, we recommend you would read and understand the compilation codes


You can get the code for the tutorial below on examples/message-format.

Released under the MIT License.