Breaking Changes

Most of the APIs offered in Vue I18n v9 (for Vue 3) strive to maintain compatibility, to ease the pain of migration from v8 (for Vue 2). But there are still a few breaking changes that you might encounter while migrating your application. This guide is how to adapt your application to make it work with Vue I18n v9.

APIs

new VueI18n becomes createI18n

Vue I18n is no longer a class but a set of functions. Instead of writing new VueI18n(), you now have to call createI18n:

Vue I18n v8.x:


 

 

 
 
 


 



import Vue from 'vue'
import VueI18n from 'vue-i18n'

Vue.use(VueI18n)

const i18n = new VueI18n({
  // ...
})

new Vue({
  i18n,
  // ...
})

Vue I18n v9 or later:


 

 
 
 




 

import { createApp } from 'vue'
import { createI18n } from 'vue-i18n'

const i18n = createI18n({
  // ...
})

const app = createApp({
  // ...
})
app.use(i18n)

Reason: Vue 3 Global API changes, and Vue 3 API architecture changes related for component instances.

Rename to datetimeFormats from dateTimeFormats

Vue I18n v8.x:



 
 
 


const i18n = new VueI18n({
  // ...
  dateTimeFormats: {
    // ...
  }
})

Vue I18n v9 or later:



 
 
 


const i18n = new createI18n({
  // ...
  datetimeFormats: {
    // ...
  }
})

Translation API return value

The translation API like $t and t function that return string only. Object and array values are no longer returned.

Vue I18n v8.x:
























 





// e.g. Array structure locale messages
const i18n = new VueI18n({
  messages: {
    en: {
      errors: [
        'invalid argument',
        // ...
        'unexpected errors'
      ]
    }
  }
})

// e.g. Error Component
const ErrorMessage = {
  props: {
    code: {
      type: Number,
      required: true
    }
  },
  template: `<p class="error">{{ getErrorMessage(code) }}</p>`,
  methods: {
    getErrorMessage(code) {
      return this.$t('errors')[code]
    }
  }
}

In Vue I18n v9 or later, it change to be using $tm or tm. The following Composition API example:
























 





// e.g. Array structure locale messages
const i18n = createI18n({
  messages: {
    en: {
      errors: [
        'invalid argument',
        // ...
        'unexpected errors'
      ]
    }
  }
})

// e.g. Error Component
const ErrorMessage = {
  props: {
    code: {
      type: Number,
      required: true
    }
  },
  template: `<p class="error">{{ errors(code) }}</p>`,
  setup() {
    const { tm } = useI18n()
    const errors = (code) => tm('errors')[code]
    return { errors }
  }
}

Reason: To make simple obligation to return the translation results, and it’s also to support TypeScript types.

Pluralization API return value

Similar to Translation API return value, the pluralization API like $tc and tc function that return string only. Object and array values are no longer returned.

Reason: To make simple obligation to return the translation results, and it’s also to support TypeScript types.

Remove getChoiceIndex

To customize the pluralization rules, Vue I18n v8.x extends getChoiceIndex of VueI18n class.

Vue I18n v8.x:

VueI18n.prototype.getChoiceIndex = function (choice, choicesLength) {
  // this === VueI18n instance, so the locale property exists
  if (this.locale !== 'ru') {
    // proceed to the default implementation
  }

  if (choice === 0) {
    return 0;
  }

  const teen = choice > 10 && choice < 20;
  const endsWithOne = choice % 10 === 1;

  if (!teen && endsWithOne) {
    return 1;
  }
  if (!teen && choice % 10 >= 2 && choice % 10 <= 4) {
    return 2;
  }
  return (choicesLength < 4) ? 2 : 3;
}

In Vue I18n v9 or later, you can customize it with the following options:

Legacy API mode:





















 
 
 
 




import { createI18n } from 'vue-i18n'

function customRule(choice, choicesLength, orgRule) {
  if (choice === 0) {
    return 0
  }

  const teen = choice > 10 && choice < 20
  const endsWithOne = choice % 10 === 1
  if (!teen && endsWithOne) {
    return 1
  }
  if (!teen && choice % 10 >= 2 && choice % 10 <= 4) {
    return 2
  }

  return choicesLength < 4 ? 2 : 3
}

const i18n = createI18n({
  // ...
  pluralizationRules: {
    ru: customRule,
    // ...
  },
  // ...
})

Composition API mode:























 
 
 
 








import { useI18n } from 'vue-i18n'

function customRule(choice, choicesLength, orgRule) {
  if (choice === 0) {
    return 0
  }

  const teen = choice > 10 && choice < 20
  const endsWithOne = choice % 10 === 1
  if (!teen && endsWithOne) {
    return 1
  }
  if (!teen && choice % 10 >= 2 && choice % 10 <= 4) {
    return 2
  }

  return choicesLength < 4 ? 2 : 3
}

const MyComp = {
  setup() {
    const { t } = useI18n({
      // ...
      pluralRules: {
        ru: customRule,
        // ...
      },
      // ...
    })

    // ...
  }
}

Reason: VueI18n class has been removed.

Change warnHtmlInMessage option default value

In Vue I18n v8.x, the value of warnHtmlInMessage was "off". Therefore, by default, no warning is output to the console even if the message contains HTML.

In Vue I18n v9 or later, change the default values as follows:

  • Legacy API mode: warnHtmlInMessage property: "warn"
  • Composition API mode: warnHtmlMessage boolean property, default true

In development mode, unless you change this value, you will receive the warning to the console by default.

In production mode, it does not detect if the message contains HTML to maximize performance.

Reason: to make stronger security for locale messages

Version info

Version information is now accessible in import syntax instead of the VueI18n class static property.

Vue I18n v8.x:

import VueI18n from 'vue-i18n'

console.log(VueI18n.Version)

Vue I18n v9 or later:

import { VERSION } from 'vue-i18n'

console.log(VERSION)

Reason: Tree shaking optimization, and VueI18n class has been removed.

Remove Intl availability

Removed as major browsers now support the ECMAScript Internationalization API.

Vue I18n v8.x:

import VueI18n from 'vue-i18n'

console.log(VueI18n.availability)

Reason: IE9 end of life, and VueI18n class has been removed.

Remove Custom formatter

Reason: Due to hard to provide custom formats in the new compiler and runtime APIs. We are planning to support it in the next major version to support in these APIs. If you would like to use ICU message format, you can use the @formatjs/vue-intl

Remove preserveDirectiveContent option

The v-t directive for Vue 3 now preserves the default content. Therefore, this option and its properties have been removed from the VueI18n instance.

Vue I18n v8.x:

import VueI18n from 'vue-i18n'

const i18n = new VueI18n({
  // ...
  preserveDirectiveContent: true,
  // ...
})

Reason: Keep the content to element with v-t directive

Message Format Syntax

Remove array-like object for List interpolation

In Vue I18n v8.x, List interpolation could use an array-like object as a parameter, such as the following:

import VueI18n from 'vue-i18n'

const i18n = new VueI18n({
  // ...
  messages: {
    en: {
      greeting: 'hello, {0}!'
    }
  },
  // ...
})
<p>{{ $t('greeting', { '0': 'kazupon' }) }}</p>

In Vue I18n v9 or later, you can’t use array-like objects for list interpolation, you have to use array:

<p>{{ $t('greeting', ['kazupon']) }}</p>

Reason: provide a Translation API with a consistent argument I/F

Special character handling

The messages that can be translated by Vue I18n can be highly translated using message format syntax, such as the following:

@.caml:{'no apples'} | {0} apple | {n} apples

The message format syntax can be expressed using the following special characters that are used:

  • {, }, @, $, |

Since Vue I18n v9 and later, message format syntax is now handled by the message format compiler, if you use these special characters as part of a message, the message will occur error at compile. If you want to use these special characters, you have to use literal interpolation.

// e.g. `@` use-case for mail address
{emailItendity}{'@'}{emailDomain}

Reason: In order for the message format compiler to correctly handle the special characters of the syntax used in the message format syntax, it is necessary to limit them.

Remove brackets grouping for Linked messages

In Vue I18n v8.x, the distinction was made between key references in Linked messages and messages using brackets () to distinguish between them.

Vue I18n v8.x:





 




const messages = {
  en: {
    message: {
      dio: 'DIO',
      linked: 'There\'s a reason, you lost, @:(message.dio).'
    }
  }
}

In Vue I18n v9 or later, brackets are no longer needed as the message format compiler allows you to handle named, list, and literal interpolations.

Vue I18n v9 or later:

const messages = {
  en: {
    message: {
      dio: 'DIO',
      linked: "There\'s a reason, you lost, @:{'message.dio'}."
    }
  }
}

v-t directive

Remove preserve modifier

Similar to Remove preserveDirectiveContent option, the v-t directive for Vue 3 now preserves the default content. Therefore, preserve modifier and it’s have been removed from v-t directive.

Vue I18n v8.x:

<p v-t.preserve="'hello'"></p>

Reason: Keep the content to element with v-t directive

Translation component

Rename to i18n-tfrom i18n

The tag name of the translation component (called i18n functional component in Vue I18n v8.x) has been changed.

Vue I18n v8.x:

<i18n path="message.greeting" />

Vue I18n v9 or later:

<i18n-t keypath="message.greeting" />

Reason: tag name same i18n custom blocks <i18n>, so it’s confusing with the block names and prone to mistakes in SFC.

tag prop is optional

In Vue I18n v8.x, tag prop could be used to render child elements without the root element by specifying a tag name and the Boolean value false.

Vue I18n v8.x:

 

 

<i18n :tag="false" path="message.greeting">
  <span>hello!</span>
</i18n>

Since Vue I18n v9 or later, you can do the same by omitting the tag prop.

Vue I18n v9 or later:

 

 

<i18n-t keypath="message.greeting">
  <span>hello!</span>
</i18n-t>

Reason: Since Vue 3 now supports Fragments

Rename to keypath prop from path prop

Vue I18n v8.x:

<i18n path="message.greeting" />

Vue I18n v9 or later:

<i18n-t keypath="message.greeting" />

Remove place syntax with place attr and places prop

In Vue I18n v9 or later, the place attr and places prop have been removed from component interpolation.

Vue I18n v8.x:

<i18n path="info" tag="p" :places="{ limit: refundLimit }">
  <span place="limit">{{ refundLimit }}</span>
  <a place="action" :href="refundUrl">{{ $t('refund') }}</a>
</i18n>

Vue I18n v9 or later:

<i18n-t keypath="info" tag="p">
  <template #limit>
    <span>{{ refundLimit }}</span>
  <template>
  <template #action>
    <a :href="refundUrl">{{ $t('refund') }}</a>
  <template>
</i18n-t>

Reason: Since be able to do the same thing with slots

NumberFormat component

tag prop is optional

Similar to Translation component section, In NumberFormat component (called i18n-n functional component in Vue I18n v8.x) tag prop could be used to render child elements without the root element by specifying a tag name and the Boolean value false.

Vue I18n v8.x:

<i18n-n :tag="false" :value="100" format="currency">
  <span v-slot:integer="slotProps" styles="font-weight: bold">{{ slotProps.integer }}</span>
</i18n-n>

Since Vue I18n v9 or later, you can do the same by omitting the tag prop.

Vue I18n v9 or later:

<i18n-n :value="100" format="currency">
  <span v-slot:integer="slotProps" styles="font-weight: bold">{{ slotProps.integer }}</span>
</i18n-n>

Reason: Since Vue 3 now supports Fragments